A mace is best compared with the shape of a golf club and the wide part of the mace was used to move the balls around the table. Players started to use the thin butt end of the mace around 1670, at first for shots under the cushion, and later on players increasingly preferred it for other shots as well.
For a long time, only men were allowed to use the cue; women were forced to use the mace because it was felt they were more likely to rip the cloth with the shaper cue.
In time borders on the table also evolved, this time into “cushions’’, these cushions during time varied strongly regarding used material.
Wood, hair, linen, cotton, hot water, springs are just some of the forerunner materials which ended up with today’s used vulcanized rubber.